If you're in the process of setting up a home recording studio, microphone basics are a must. It's impossible to set up an optimised recording studio without taking the time to work out exactly what type of microphone is best going to meet your recording needs.
The microphone as a transducer
The basic function of a microphone is to be a transducer, which simply means that it converts a type of energy into another type of energy. It tries to do this with as little variation from the original source as possible.
Thus, for example, if a singer breaks an astonishing "grace", they cause acoustic pressure variations to travel in the air and are converted by the microphone in voltage variations in a wire. A type of energy converted to another; The sound is transformed into tension.
The thing is, the process of transduction through a microphone is never perfect. There's always going to a bit of variation between the original source, and what it's converted to, and that's because the microphone itself cannot help but affect the signal.
Now there are many different microphones there. They are constructed differently, they work differently and meet different needs. One of them will be the best choice for your home check-in studio.